Contemporary Iranian literature is rooted in constitutional literature, and hence its full comprehension depends on the knowledge of constitutional events. The “Introduction” section reviews the period of constitutionalism and its political, social, and cultural events and then investigates the developments of Persian literature in two fields of “poetry” and “fiction”. The chapter on “poetry” highlights the general conception of contemporary literature, traditionalist poets, novice poets and the poetry of the Islamic Revolution. The chapter on “Fiction” points out the notable early fiction authors, (first, second, third, and fourth generation) regional literature, a review of post-Islamic fiction writing and also fiction writing in the 70s and 80s. This book is tailored for those interested in contemporary Iranian poetry and fiction.